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Rewardable Entities

Following the transition to Solana, all actors in the network that receive tokens are considered "Rewardable Entities."

Initially, only Hotspots could earn rewards. This expanded to include phones using the Helium Mobile app for Mobile network mapping. In the future, there will be more ways to earn rewards, like using specific mapping devices.

A rewardable entity on the Helium Network is represented on Solana as an NFT (Non-Fungible Token).

NFTs are ideal for this job as they represent ownership in a way that is easily transferrable and recognized by all major wallets.

Fetching Rewardable Entities

All rewardable entities are created by the helium-entity-manager program. Further, they exist under a collection that is managed by the Maker of that entity. The easiest way to fetch all Helium entities for a given wallet is to filter by the helium-entity-manager-creator

We can get this address by running

import { daoKey } from "@helium/helium-sub-daos-sdk";
import { entityCreatorKey } from "@helium/helium-entity-manager-sdk";

const hntMint = new PublicKey('...hnt mint...')
const dao = daoKey(hntMint)[[0]]
const creator = entityCreatorKey(dao)[0]

This should output: Fv5hf1Fg58htfC7YEXKNEfkpuogUUQDDTLgjGWxxv48H

Now, we can use the Metaplex Digital Asset API to get rewardable entities my wallet (BcJzP2hEYgzjUwpHEtS6RhuqGfEJVx8Rq3MejujAAWrR) owns:

curl --request POST \
--url \
--header 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data '{
"jsonrpc": "2.0",
"method": "search_assets",
"id": "get-assets-op-1",
"params": {
"ownerAddress": "BcJzP2hEYgzjUwpHEtS6RhuqGfEJVx8Rq3MejujAAWrR",
"page": 0,
"creatorAddress": "Fv5hf1Fg58htfC7YEXKNEfkpuogUUQDDTLgjGWxxv48H",
"creatorVerified": true,
"sortBy": {"sortBy": "created", "sortDirection": "asc"}

Hotspots and ECC Compact Keys

Hotspots on the Helium Network currently are uniquely identified by their ECC Compact Public Keys.

At onboarding time, Hotspots can sign an onboard transaction proving physical ownership of the device.

As such, the Helium Solana implementation enforces that all NFTs are unique by ECC Compact keys.

If you have an asset id of an NFT on Solana, you can get the ECC Compact Key by fetching the digital asset and pulling out the last value from the content.json_uri.

For example:

import { getAsset } from "@helium/spl-utils";

const asset = await getAsset(rpcUrl, new PublicKey("...asset id..."));

const eccCompactKey = asset.content.json_uri.split("/").slice(-1)[0];

If you have only an ECC Compact key and would like to find the NFT, you can use the KeyToAssetV0 struct that is stored on-chain:

import { daoKey } from "@helium/helium-sub-daos-sdk"
import { keyToAssetKey, init } from "@helium/helium-entity-manager-sdk"

// Declare constants
const hntMint = new PublicKey("...hnt mint...")
const dao = daoKey(hntMint)[0]
const eccKey = "...ecc compact key..."

// Init program
const program = await init(provider);

// Get the asset id from the KeyToAssetV0 account on-chain
const keyToAssetPkey = keyToAssetKey(dao, eccKey)[0]
const keyToAssetAcc = await program.account.keyToAssetV0.fetch(keyToAssetPkey);
const assetId = keyToAssetAcc.asset;

// Now get the asset from the metaplex asset api
const asset = await getAsset(rpcUrl, assetId)

Transferring Rewardable Entities

Onboarding Rewardable Entities

The onboarding flow for an entity is generally that a customer purchases the hardware from a Maker, and then self-onboards to the network. Because all hardware is created by approved Makers, the onboard transaction must be approved by the Maker. This uses a similar flow to the legacy onboarding-server of the Helium blockchain.

The main difference between the Solana version of Helium, and the legacy version on the Helium chain, is that onboarding is on a per-network basis. A Hotspot can be an IOT Hotspot, a MOBILE Hotspot, or both. If the Hotspot wants to earn both MOBILE and IOT rewards, it must onboard to the IOT network AND the MOBILE network. It must also assert location on both subnetworks.

Similarly, makers are approved for specific subnetworks. A maker that creates IOT Hotspots cannot necessarily onboard MOBILE Hotspots. Each network subnetwork must approve makers to issue rewardable entities.

The following test shows the full flow of onboarding a Hotspot using the onboarding server.

The React Native Helium SDK should greatly simplify this process.

import Address from "@helium/address";
import { Keypair } from "@helium/crypto";
import { sendAndConfirmWithRetry } from "@helium/spl-utils";
import { AddGatewayV1 } from "@helium/transactions";
import { accountProviders } from "@metaplex-foundation/mpl-bubblegum";
import {
Keypair as SolanaKeypair,
} from "@solana/web3.js";
import axios from "axios";
import { BN } from "bn.js";

function random(len: number): string {
return new Array(len).join().replace(/(.|$)/g, function () {
return ((Math.random() * 36) | 0).toString(36);

function sleep(ms: number) {
return new Promise((resolve) => setTimeout(resolve, ms));

describe("onboarding server", () => {
let me: Keypair;
let gateway: Keypair;
const maker = Address.fromB58(
let onboardingKey: string;

let base = "";
before(async () => {
me = await Keypair.makeRandom();
gateway = await Keypair.makeRandom();
onboardingKey = gateway.address.b58;
const result = await
macWlan0: random(10),
macEth0: random(10),
rpiSerial: random(10),
heliumSerial: random(10),
batch: "example-batch",
headers: {

await sleep(2000);

it("should run issue txs", async () => {
const hotspot = (
await axios.get(`${base}/api/v2/hotspots/${onboardingKey}`)
const solanaKeypair = SolanaKeypair.fromSecretKey(me.privateKey);
console.log("Solana pubkey: ", solanaKeypair.publicKey.toBase58())

await sleep(2000);

const result = await
location: new BN(1).toString(),
transaction: (
await new AddGatewayV1({
owner: me.address,
gateway: gateway.address,
payer: maker,

const connection = new Connection("");
const { solanaTransactions } =;
for (const solanaTransaction of solanaTransactions) {
const txid = await sendAndConfirmWithRetry(
{ skipPreflight: true },

let tries = 0;
let onboardResult: any;
while (tries < 10 && !onboardResult) {
try {
onboardResult = await
entityKey: onboardingKey,
} catch {
console.log(`Hotspot may not exist yet ${tries}`);
await sleep(2000); // Wait for Hotspot to be indexed into asset api

for (const solanaTransaction of onboardResult!
.solanaTransactions) {
const tx = Transaction.from(Buffer.from(solanaTransaction));
const txid = await sendAndConfirmWithRetry(
{ skipPreflight: true },

const updateResult = await
entityKey: onboardingKey,
location: new BN(1).toString(),
elevation: 2,
gain: 11,
wallet: solanaKeypair.publicKey.toBase58()

for (const solanaTransaction of {
const tx = Transaction.from(Buffer.from(solanaTransaction));
const txid = await sendAndConfirmWithRetry(
{ skipPreflight: true },

Claiming Rewards on Rewardable Entities

A system of oracles keeps track of the rewards owed to each Rewardable Entity. For example, in the IOT network there are oracles that keep track of the IOT tokens earned by each Hotspot for PoC.

These oracles are responsible ONLY for tracking the total lifetime rewards associated with a Hotspot. This frees the oracles from any kind of dependence on the blockchain. They don't care about the issuance or movement of tokens.

The lazy-distributor program keeps track of, for each Hotspot, how much of the total lifetime rewards have been claimed. Claiming rewards, then, consists of two steps:

  1. Ask oracles to update the on-chain state to reflect the latest lifetime rewards for this Hotspot.
  2. Issue the difference between the total lifetime rewards and total claimed rewards to the Hotspot owner.

In practice, we have made it so that this can all happen in a singular transaction for PoC rewards. Staking rewards will happen in transactions combining up to 4 days of rewards.

Finding Current Rewards

Oracles work off of a restful API that involves

  1. Grabbing lifetime rewards for all oracles.
  2. Constructing a transaction to set the rewards and passing the transaction to each oracle to partially sign.
  3. Submitting the fully signed transaction to Solana.

The SDK simplifies this process into two functions, getCurrentRewards and formTransaction.

If you have interest in using the REST api, you can see the relatively simple client code here

To fetch rewards across all oracles for a given asset id:

import { init, lazyDistributorKey } from "@helium/lazy-distributor-sdk";
import { getCurrentRewards } from "@helium/distributor-oracle";
import * as anchor from "@coral-xyz/anchor";

anchor.setProvider(anchor.AnchorProvider.local("...rpc url..."));
const provider = anchor.getProvider() as anchor.AnchorProvider;
const program = await init(provider)

const iotMint = new PublicKey("...iot mint...")
const assetId = new PublicKey("...asset id...")
const lazyDistributorPkey = lazyDistributorKey(iotMint)[0];
const rewards = await getCurrentRewards(program, lazyDistributorPkey, assetId); => {
console.log(`Oracle ${reward.oracleKey} stating lifetime rewards of ${reward.currentRewards}`);

Claiming Rewards


The claim example in this section requires a connection to an RPC node (provider) that understands compressed NFTs. This is an advanced feature that is not yet supported by Solana's public RPC servers. This example will not work unless you use an appropriate RPC provider such as Helius.

You can then get a transaction to submit to the Solana blockchain using those rewards:

import { formTransaction } from "@helium/distributor-oracle";
import { sendAndConfirmWithRetry } from "@helium/spl-utils";

const tx = await formTransaction({
rewards, // from above
hotspot: assetId,
lazyDistributor: lazyDistributorPkey,

const signed = await provider.wallet.signTransaction(tx);

await sendAndConfirmWithRetry(
{ skipPreflight: true },