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MOBILE Delegator Over-Emissions Post-Mortem

· 5 min read

An incident involving oracle rewards implementation on Solana was identified on December 12, 2023, revealing a discrepancy in MOBILE token rewards due to configuration errors in the delegator rewards percentage. The issue led to an over-emission to delegators and an underfunded rewards escrow, amounting to a total discrepancy of approximately 274 million MOBILE tokens. To address this, the protocol will temporarily increase emissions, effectively replenishing the escrow and slightly increasing the circulating supply of MOBILE by 274 million, a minor deviation that does not affect the max supply of 230B.

Technical Background

To understand the incident, it helps to understand the technical details of oracle rewards implementation on Solana.

Rewards for all rewardable entities (Hotspots, mappers, etc) are collated via oracles that crunch the numbers on PoC, data transfer, etc. The smart contracts on-chain do not keep track of rewards for individual entities. Instead, the contracts emit all subnetwork tokens into an escrow account reserved for these rewards. A separate contract then allows the oracle to set the rewards of a given entity on-chain. When rewards on an entity are claimed, they come from this pool of rewards.

94% of all rewards for the subnetworks are handled by the oracle network. The other 6% go to veHNT delegators. This 6% is handled by the smart contracts.

It is important to note that at any given time, all 94% of subnetwork rewards are not necessarily enabled. For example, the 4% subnetwork rewards carved out for oracles are currently not enabled and therefore not emitted.

To account for this, the smart contracts have a concept of both (a) an emissions schedule in terms of total tokens emitted per epoch and (b) a percentage allocation of these total tokens that goes to delegators.

As an example, if the total emissions are 66% of the theoretical max, the delegator rewards percentage is actually .06 / .66 * 100 = 9.090909%.

This works because 9.09% * 66% is 6% of the total theoretical emissions.


On 12/12/23 as part of routine monitoring and system improvements, the protocol team implemented a new metric to measure the integrity of the rewards escrow. This metric sought to compare the theoretical number of unclaimed rewards vs the amount of tokens in the escrow account. The goal was to improve alerting in the case of an exploit or slow drain of the escrow. This was implemented by comparing the total lifetime rewards of all entities in the system vs the total claimed rewards of all entities in the system.

It was then discovered that there was a discrepancy of ~274m MOBILE tokens. Both the Helium Foundation and Nova Labs teams convened to track down the source of the discrepancy. This issue could happen from

  1. Over-emissions from the oracles.
  2. Under-emissions from the smart contracts.
  3. An exploit.


After digging into the data, the team found that the smart contracts had been over-emitting to delegators and under-emitting to the rewards escrow. It was also found that the smart contracts emitted rewards for MOBILE mappers 2 days fewer than the oracles had been emitting mapper rewards.

The former bug was caused by the delegator rewards percentage chainvar (see above Background). This chainvar was still set for emissions of 66%, while the actual emissions with the addition of mappers is 86%. This meant the variable was set to 9.09% instead of 6.98%. This led to an extra 1490312.96508 being emitted to delegators and not to the rewards escrow. This does not mean that Hotspots/mappers were rewarded any less, but instead meant that the escrow was underfunded – it did not have enough tokens to fund all claims.

The latter bug was related to the delegator rewards percentage. When mappers were enabled, there were coordination issues between the oracles and smart contracts. These issues were discovered, and the team attempted to rectify them by temporarily increasing emissions for an epoch. Unfortunately, when the team updated the emissions, they accidentally reset the delegator rewards percentage to the previous value.


The smart contracts have been over-emitting by 1,490,312.96508 MOBILE a day since August 1st, 2023. This amounts to 201,192,250.2858 MOBILE missing from the escrow.

Additionally, 73,229,486.7032 MOBILE were not emitted for the addition of mappers due to the timing and coordination issues.

This leaves a discrepancy of 274,421,737.0063 MOBILE

Next Steps

To repair the issue, the protocol will temporarily increase emissions for the next epoch starting 2023–12-27. This will cause increased emissions to the escrow, which will fill the underfunding. Theoretically, this will also increase the circulating supply of MOBILE by 274M. In practice those 274M MOBILE had not yet been claimed and it is unlikely this emission will affect the rate at which they will be claimed in the future.

While this is substantially less than the unemitted rewards for oracles and service providers and does not affect max supply of MOBILE, it is still a deviation from expected total emissions by at most 0.12%.


Two major efforts will prevent this issue from happening again.

The first is that contract changes currently being audited will allow the on-chain emission schedule to be 100% of theoretical emissions. This change will allow the oracles to specify the amount that is not emitted, rather than using on-chain configuration to control portions that are not emitted. Along with enabling HIP-87, this will also make coordination issues with the oracles less likely to occur. Instead, the delegator 6% and the agreed-upon emissions schedules can be encoded and never again changed. Instead of requiring changes every time a new rewardable entity has its emissions enabled.

The second is the monitoring solution that led to this discovery. The team will now be able to monitor and be alerted to any underfunding of the escrows. With this solution, issues like this will be discovered before they can have a large impact.